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Angel Morrison
Angel Morrison

Amd Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core Processor Tk 55 Driver

The Athlon 64 is a ninth-generation, AMD64-architecture microprocessor produced by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), released on September 23, 2003.[1] It is the third processor to bear the name Athlon, and the immediate successor to the Athlon XP.[2] The second processor (after the Opteron) to implement the AMD64 architecture and the first 64-bit processor targeted at the average consumer,[3] it was AMD's primary consumer CPU, and primarily competed with Intel's Pentium 4, especially the Prescott and Cedar Mill core revisions. It is AMD's first K8, eighth-generation processor core for desktop and mobile computers.[4] Despite being natively 64-bit, the AMD64 architecture is backward-compatible with 32-bit x86 instructions.[5] Athlon 64s have been produced for Socket 754, Socket 939, Socket 940, and Socket AM2. The line was succeeded by the dual-core Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon X2 lines.

Amd Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core Processor Tk 55 Driver

All the 64-bit processors sold by AMD so far have their genesis in the K8 or Hammer project. On June 1, 2004, AMD released new versions of both the ClawHammer and Newcastle core revisions for the newly introduced Socket 939, an altered Socket 940 without the need for buffered memory.[14] Socket 939 offered two main improvements over Socket 754: the memory controller was altered with dual-channel architecture,[15] doubling peak memory bandwidth, and the HyperTransport bus was increased in speed from 800 MHz to 1000 MHz.[16] Socket 939 also was introduced in the FX series in the form of the FX-55.[17] At the same time, AMD also began to ship the "Winchester" core, based on a 90 nanometer process.

On April 21, 2005, less than a week after the release of Venice and San Diego, AMD announced its next addition to the Athlon 64 line, the Athlon 64 X2.[24] Released on May 31, 2005,[25] it also initially had two different core revisions available to the public, Manchester and Toledo, the only appreciable difference between them being the amount of L2 cache.[26] Both were released only for Socket 939.[27] The Athlon 64 X2 was received very well by reviewers and the general public, with a general consensus emerging that AMD's implementation of multi-core was superior to that of the competing Pentium D.[28][29] Some felt initially that the X2 would cause market confusion with regard to price points since the new processor was targeted at the same "enthusiast," US$350 and above market[30] already occupied by AMD's existing socket 939 Athlon 64s.[31] AMD's official breakdown of the chips placed the Athlon X2 aimed at a segment they called the "prosumer", along with digital media fans.[25] The Athlon 64 was targeted at the mainstream consumer, and the Athlon FX at gamers. The Sempron budget processor was targeted at value-conscious consumers.[32] Following the launch of the Athlon 64 X2, AMD surpassed Intel in US retail sales for a period of time, although Intel retained overall market leadership because of its exclusive relationships with direct sellers such as Dell.[33]

The memory controller used in all DDR2 SDRAM capable processors (Socket AM2), has extended column address range of 11 columns instead of conventional 10 columns, and the support of 16 kB page size, with at most 2048 individual entries supported. An OCZ unbuffered DDR2 kit, optimized for 64-bit operating systems, was released to exploit the functionality provided by the memory controller in socket AM2 processors, allowing the memory controller to stay longer on the same page, thus benefitting graphics intensive applications.[40]

There are four variants: Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Mobile Athlon 64 (later renamed "Turion 64") and the dual-core Athlon 64 X2.[41] Common among the Athlon 64 line are a variety of instruction sets including MMX, 3DNow!, SSE, SSE2, and SSE3.[42] All Athlon 64s also support the NX bit, a security feature named "Enhanced Virus Protection" by AMD.[43] And as implementations of the AMD64 architecture, all Athlon 64 variants are able to run 16 bit, 32 bit x86, and AMD64 code, through two different modes the processor can run in: "Legacy mode" and "long mode". Legacy mode runs 16-bit and 32-bit programs natively, and long mode runs 64-bit programs natively, but also allows for 32-bit programs running inside a 64-bit operating system.[44] All Athlon 64 processors feature 128 Kilobytes of level 1 cache, and at least 512 kB of level 2 cache.[42]

The Athlon 64 FX is positioned as a hardware enthusiast product, marketed by AMD especially toward gamers.[56] Unlike the standard Athlon 64, all of the Athlon 64 FX processors have their multipliers completely unlocked.[57] Starting with the FX-60, the FX line became dual-core.[58] The FX always has the highest clock speed of all Athlons at its release.[59] From FX-70 onwards, the line of processors will also support dual-processor setup with NUMA, named AMD Quad FX platform.

The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD.In 2007, AMD released two final Athlon 64 X2 versions: the AMD Athlon 64 X2 6400+ and 5000+ Black Editions. Both processors feature an unlocked multiplier, which allows for a large range of overclocked settings. The 6400+ is based on a 90 nm Windsor core (3.2 GHz, 2x1 MB L2, 125 W TDP) while the 5000+ is based on a 65 nm Brisbane core (2.6 GHz, 2 x 512 kB L2, 65 W TDP). These Black Edition processors are available at retail, but AMD does not include heatsinks in the retail package.

The model naming scheme does not make it obvious how to compare one Turion with another, or even an Athlon 64. The model name is two letters, a dash, and a two digit number (for example, ML-34). The two letters together designate a processor class, while the number represents a PR rating. The first letter is M for single core processors and T for dual core Turion 64 X2 processors. The later in the alphabet that the second letter appears, the more the model has been designed for mobility (low power use). Take for example, an MT-30 and an ML-34. Since the T in the MT-30 is later in the alphabet than the L in ML-34, the MT-30 uses less power than the ML-34. But since 34 is greater than 30, the ML-34 is faster than the MT-30.

With 27 mm 27 mm in size and 2.5 mm in thickness, the Athlon Neo processors utilize a new package called "ASB1", essentially a BGA package, for smaller footprint to allow smaller designs for notebooks and lowering the cost. The clock of the processors is significantly lower than desktop and other mobile counterparts to reach a low TDP, at 15W maximum for a single core x86-64 CPU at 1.6 GHz. The Athlon Neo processors are equipped with 512 kB of L2 cache and HyperTransport 1.0 running at 800 MHz frequency.

At the introduction of Athlon 64 in September 2003, only Socket 754 and Socket 940 (Opteron) were ready and available. The onboard memory controller was not capable of running unbuffered (non-registered) memory in dual-channel mode at the time of release; as a stopgap measure, they introduced the Athlon 64 on Socket 754, and brought out a non-multiprocessor version of the Opteron called the Athlon 64 FX, as a multiplier unlocked enthusiast part for Socket 940, comparable to Intel's Pentium 4 Extreme Edition for the high end market.

In November 2006, AMD released a specialized version of Socket F, called 1207 FX, for dual-socket, dual-core Athlon FX processors on the Quad FX platform. While Socket F Opterons already allowed for four processor cores, Quad FX allowed unbuffered RAM and expanded CPU/chipset configuration in the BIOS. Consequentially, Socket F and F 1207 FX are incompatible and require different processors, chipsets, and motherboards.

The Athlon 64 was succeeded by the K10 architecture in 2007, including but not limited to the Phenom and Phenom II processors. These successors feature higher core counts per CPU, and implement Hypertransport 3.0 and Socket AM2+/AM3.


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